When artifacts and repositories are heterogeneous it's impossible to create the harmonised framework needed to achieve FAIRness.
The outcomes from the two parallel sessions, one tackling aspects of FAIR semantics and the other FAIR and interoperable repositories, will inform our initial recommendations. The event is free of charge but places are limited to 60 people, therefore registration is needed. Please, also answer our survey on semantics and FAIR technologies. The stop is Keilaniemi, exit G.
Airport to the city. From the Helsinki Airport you can reach the city centre by train, bus, taxi or car. Another hotel close to the venue 1,8 km is Sokos Hotel Tapiola Garden. Other hotels are located in the Helsinki City Centre, with a frequent metro connection to Keilaranta, Espoo:. Despite its elegance, Montague grammar was limited by the context-dependent variability in word sense, and led to several attempts at incorporating context, such as:.
In Chomskyan linguistics there was no mechanism for the learning of semantic relations, and the nativist view considered all semantic notions as inborn. Thus, even novel concepts were proposed to have been dormant in some sense. This view was also thought unable to address many issues such as metaphor or associative meanings, and semantic change , where meanings within a linguistic community change over time, and qualia or subjective experience.
Another issue not addressed by the nativist model was how perceptual cues are combined in thought, e. This view of semantics, as an innate finite meaning inherent in a lexical unit that can be composed to generate meanings for larger chunks of discourse, is now being fiercely debated in the emerging domain of cognitive linguistics  and also in the non- Fodorian camp in philosophy of language. To take an example of one word, red , its meaning in a phrase such as red book is similar to many other usages, and can be viewed as compositional. Indeed, these colours by themselves would not be called red by native speakers.
These instances are contrastive, so red wine is so called only in comparison with the other kind of wine which also is not white for the same reasons. This view goes back to de Saussure :. Each of a set of synonyms like redouter 'to dread' , craindre 'to fear' , avoir peur 'to be afraid' has its particular value only because they stand in contrast with one another. No word has a value that can be identified independently of what else is in its vicinity.
An attempt to defend a system based on propositional meaning for semantic underspecification can be found in the generative lexicon model of James Pustejovsky , who extends contextual operations based on type shifting into the lexicon. Thus meanings are generated "on the fly" as you go , based on finite context. Another set of concepts related to fuzziness in semantics is based on prototypes. The work of Eleanor Rosch in the s led to a view that natural categories are not characterizable in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, but are graded fuzzy at their boundaries and inconsistent as to the status of their constituent members.
One may compare it with Jung 's archetype , though the concept of archetype sticks to static concept. Some post-structuralists are against the fixed or static meaning of the words. Derrida , following Nietzsche , talked about slippages in fixed meanings. Systems of categories are not objectively out there in the world but are rooted in people's experience. This leads to another debate see the Sapir—Whorf hypothesis or Eskimo words for snow.
Originates from Montague's work see above. A highly formalized theory of natural language semantics in which expressions are assigned denotations meanings such as individuals, truth values, or functions from one of these to another. The truth of a sentence, and its logical relation to other sentences, is then evaluated relative to a model. Pioneered by the philosopher Donald Davidson , another formalized theory, which aims to associate each natural language sentence with a meta-language description of the conditions under which it is true, for example: 'Snow is white' is true if and only if snow is white.
The challenge is to arrive at the truth conditions for any sentences from fixed meanings assigned to the individual words and fixed rules for how to combine them. In practice, truth-conditional semantics is similar to model-theoretic semantics; conceptually, however, they differ in that truth-conditional semantics seeks to connect language with statements about the real world in the form of meta-language statements , rather than with abstract models.
This theory is an effort to explain properties of argument structure.
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The assumption behind this theory is that syntactic properties of phrases reflect the meanings of the words that head them. A linguistic theory that investigates word meaning. This theory understands that the meaning of a word is fully reflected by its context. Here, the meaning of a word is constituted by its contextual relations. Semantic constituents that cannot be broken down into more elementary constituents are labeled minimal semantic constituents.
Various fields or disciplines have long been contributing to cross-cultural semantics. Are words like love , truth , and hate universals? Translation theory, ethnolinguistics, linguistic anthropology and cultural linguistics specialize in the field of comparing, contrasting, and translating words, terms and meanings from one language to another see Herder, W.
But philosophy, sociology, and anthropology have long established traditions in contrasting the different nuances of the terms and concepts we use. Computational semantics is focused on the processing of linguistic meaning. In order to do this concrete algorithms and architectures are described.
Building the data landscape of the future: FAIR Semantics and FAIR Repositories
In computer science , the term semantics refers to the meaning of language constructs, as opposed to their form syntax. According to Euzenat, semantics "provides the rules for interpreting the syntax which do not provide the meaning directly but constrains the possible interpretations of what is declared.
The meaning of description logic concepts and roles is defined by their model-theoretic semantics, which are based on interpretations. The semantics of programming languages and other languages is an important issue and area of study in computer science. Like the syntax of a language, its semantics can be defined exactly. For instance, the following statements use different syntaxes, but cause the same instructions to be executed, namely, perform an arithmetical addition of 'y' to 'x' and store the result in a variable called 'x':.
Various ways have been developed to describe the semantics of programming languages formally , building on mathematical logic : . On the Semantic Web , terms such as semantic network and semantic data model are used to describe particular types of data model characterized by the use of directed graphs in which the vertices denote concepts or entities in the world and their properties, and the arcs denote relationships between them.
These can formally be described as description logic concepts and roles, which correspond to OWL classes and properties. The term 'episodic memory' was introduced by Tulving and Schacter in the context of 'declarative memory' which involved simple association of factual or objective information concerning its object. Word meaning is measured by the company they keep, i. The memories may be transferred intergenerationally or isolated in one generation due to a cultural disruption. Different generations may have different experiences at similar points in their own time-lines.
This may then create a vertically heterogeneous semantic net for certain words in an otherwise homogeneous culture. In automated ontologies the links are computed vectors without explicit meaning. Various automated technologies are being developed to compute the meaning of words: latent semantic indexing and support vector machines as well as natural language processing , artificial neural networks and predicate calculus techniques. Ideasthesia is a psychological phenomenon in which activation of concepts evokes sensory experiences. For example, in synesthesia, activation of a concept of a letter e.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language. For the programming language theory branch, see Semantics computer science.
What exactly does it mean when we "argue semantics"? | Merriam-Webster
For the extended play and long play by Australian Crawl, see Semantics album. Linguistic Logical.
Lexical lexis lexicology. Statistical Structural. Prototype theory Force dynamics. Latent Machine-learning. Semantic Web Semantic wiki. Outline History Index. Grammatical theories. Main article: Formal semantics linguistics. Main article: Truth-conditional semantics.