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Analyzes mandates to address national security and criminal activity within the United States and globally.

Critically analyzes the actions of federal law enforcement through a social justice lens. Applies principles of social justice to criminal justice contexts within the United States.

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Analyzes social positons in relation to relative privilege and power. Emphasizes experiential and reflective learning. Deviance as a social process; types of deviant behavior e. Analyzes the effectiveness of restorative justice for resolving harm through directly engaging victims, offenders, and communities. Explores social definitions, perpetrators and victims of white-collar crimes. Critically examines which social contexts promote such crime and analyzes how society and the criminal justice system respond to them.

Focuses on factors which contribute to female incarceration including poverty, physical and sexual victimization, chemical dependency, and major mental illness. Gender-responsive strategies designed for advocacy and empowerment address major economic and social justice issues. Emphasizes juvenile criminal offense theories, the continuum of legal responses, and the consequences on youth, families, and society. Focuses on the interaction of mental health and criminal justice practice.

Explores the prevalence of mental health and substance use and best practices for treatment. Analyzes the unintended consequences of criminalizing policies and practices. Explores psychosocial effects on the lives of diverse immigrants, their families, and ethnic minority communities. Examines the consequences of discrimination toward LGBTQ people throughout the criminal justice process.

Develops skills in facilitating several models of victim offender dialogue VOD.


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  • Reading: Conflict Theory and Deviance | Sociology.
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Articulates the benefits and risks of VOD for justice stakeholders. Critically examines the effectiveness of VOD as a response to crime and violence. Cultivates a practitioner identity. Skills include empathy, active listening, boundary setting, maximizing strengths, positive conformation and challenges, and the basics of cognitive and systemic change. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2. Explores practice and policy issues relevant to the contemporary adult corrections system.

Examines the nature of community and institutional corrections settings and offender populations. Emphasizes the investigation of particular crimes, such as, homicide, sex offences, child abuse, and hate crimes. Considers labor and sexual exploitation and examines existing laws and services to combat trafficking. Analyzes the role of demand in perpetuating trafficking and the victims' trauma.

Applies best practice solutions.

Examines the various conceptions of masculinities that increase the risk of criminality, and how men "perform" masculinities within the criminal justice system and to the provision of services. Relative deprivation was originally utilized in the field of sociology by Samuel A. Stouffer , who was a pioneer of this theory. Stouffer revealed that soldiers fighting in World War II measured their personal success by the experience in their units rather than by the standards set by the military.

It is not based on absolute poverty , a condition where one cannot meet a necessary level to maintain basic living standards. Rather, relative deprivation enforces the idea that even if a person is financially stable, he or she can still feel relatively deprived. In criminology, the theory of relative deprivation explains that people who feel jealous and discontent of others might turn to crime to acquire the things that they can not afford.

Rural criminology is the study of crime trends outside of metropolitan and suburban areas. Rural criminologists have used social disorganization and routine activity theories. The FBI Uniform Crime Report shows that rural communities have significantly different crime trends as opposed to metropolitan and suburban areas. The crime in rural communities consists predominantly of narcotic related crimes such as the production, use, and trafficking of narcotics. Social disorganization theory is used to examine the trends involving narcotics. Routine activity theory is used to examine all low level street crimes such as theft.

Public criminology is a discipline within criminology. Public Criminology, a concept closely tied with "public sociology", argues that the energies of criminologists should be directed towards "conducting and disseminating research on crime, law, and deviance in dialogue with affected communities.

Entry requirements

Public criminology attempts to debunk myths in criminology. Both the positivist and classical schools take a consensus view of crime: that a crime is an act that violates the basic values and beliefs of society.

Social Realities

Those values and beliefs are manifested as laws that society agrees upon. However, there are two types of laws:. Therefore, definitions of crimes will vary from place to place, in accordance to the cultural norms and mores, but may be broadly classified as a blue-collar crime , corporate crime , organized crime , political crime , public order crime , state crime , state-corporate crime , and white-collar crime. Homicide is the killing of another individual.

Homicide can be broken up into many degrees and classifications. Murder is a specific classification of homicide.

Statistics on Gender and Crime

Specific legal definitions of homicide can vary from state to state, or country to country. However, there are still three basic categories of homicide: justifiable, excusable, and criminal. There are three general classifications and rankings of murder. The first is first-degree murder, which is committed with premeditation and deliberation, meaning that the offender thought about and planned. Second-degree murder refers to a murder that is not premeditated or deliberated.

Felony murder refers to a murder that occurs in correspondence with another felony, such as a robbery. Manslaughter refers to a murder where there was no deliberation, premeditation, or malice involved in the act. This category of homicide can be broken into two subsets. Voluntary manslaughter, sometimes referred to as a crime of passion, is murder based on immediate impulse in a moment of passion or emotion.

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Involuntary manslaughter refers to the murder of someone due to an offender's reckless behavior, such as drunk driving. Expressive homicide refers to murder that are unplanned and come from fits of rage or emotion. Instrumental homicide refers to murders that are used as a means to an end or are conducted to reach a goal. An example would be murder during a robbery. Multicides, or the murder of multiple people, can be broken down into three different classifications: mass murder, spree murder, and serial murder.

Domestic violence usually occurs between a pair or partner of people, in the form of either familial violence or Intimate Partner Violence IPV. It can range across any type of violence, whether it's physical, financial, emotional, sexual, or verbal. Recording domestic violence is usually dependent on victim reporting, therefore, statistics and numbers are usually an underestimate of reality. Victims can report occurrences reporting systems, which show less accurate numbers, or surveying systems, which show more accurate numbers, although still not exact.

Social Perspectives on Violence

Uniform Crime Reports are dependent on victims reporting to the police. This survey system interviews household members age 12 and above about domestic violence of all kinds. This is a survey system through the Center for Disease Control. Members are 18 and older and are asked specific questions about their experiences and are not questioned as to who initiated altercations.

Stalking involves "repeated visual or physical proximity, non-consensual communication, threats, or a combination thereof" that are repeated on at least two occasions. There are seven specific tactics used by stalkers:. Rape and sexual assault are forced sexual action or coercion of sexual action onto a non-consenting or coerced person. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Criminology journal. For the Raekwon song, see Criminology song.

171130 Sex offenders: Prediction, Prevention and treatment

Types of crime. Chicago school Classical school Conflict criminology Critical criminology Environmental criminology Feminist school Integrative criminology Italian school Left realism Marxist criminology Neo-classical school Positivist school Postmodernist school Right realism. Index Journals Organizations People.