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Detailed knowledge of behaviour of external flow regimes is of importance especially in aeronautics and aerodynamics. Laminar flow. For practical purposes, if the Reynolds number is less than , the flow is laminar. Transitional flow.

At Reynolds numbers between about and the flow is unstable as a result of the onset of turbulence. These flows are sometimes referred to as transitional flows. Turbulent flow. If the Reynolds number is greater than , the flow is turbulent. Most fluid systems in nuclear facilities operate with turbulent flow. Pressurized water reactors are cooled and moderated by high-pressure liquid water e. Inside the reactor pressure vessel RPV , the coolant first flows down outside the reactor core through the downcomer. From the bottom of the pressure vessel, the flow is reversed up through the core, where the coolant temperature increases as it passes through the fuel rods and the assemblies formed by them.

## Laminar Viscous Flow - V.N. Constantinescu - Google книги

See also: Example: Flow rate through a reactor core. The average Nusselt number over the entire plate is determined by:. This relation gives the average heat transfer coefficient for the entire plate when the flow is laminar over the entire plate. In laminar flow in a tube with constant surface temperature, both the friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient remain constant in the fully developed region. Therefore, for fully developed laminar flow in a circular tube subjected to constant surface heat flux , the Nusselt number is a constant.

There is no dependence on the Reynolds or the Prandtl numbers. Fluid Dynamics. Laminar vs. The flow velocity profile for laminar flow in circular pipes is parabolic in shape, with a maximum flow in the center of the pipe and a minimum flow at the pipe walls. The average flow velocity is approximately one half of the maximum velocity. Simple mathematical analysis is possible. Rare in practice in water systems.

Average motion is in the direction of the flow The flow velocity profile for turbulent flow is fairly flat across the center section of a pipe and drops rapidly extremely close to the walls. The average flow velocity is approximately equal to the velocity at the center of the pipe. Mathematical analysis is very difficult. Most common type of flow. Average velocity Vavg is defined as the average speed through a cross section.

For fully developed laminar pipe flow, Vavg is half of the maximum velocity. Classification of Flow Regimes. From a practical engineering point of view the flow regime can be categorized according to several criteria. The fluid flow can be either laminar or turbulent and therefore these two categories are: Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow Laminar flow is characterized by smooth or in regular paths of particles of the fluid. From this point of view, we distinguish: Internal Flow External Flow Internal flow is a flow for which the fluid is confined by a surface.

Example: Reynolds number for a primary piping and a fuel bundle.

### Viscosity and Laminar Flow

It is an illustrative example, following data do not correspond to any reactor design. The hydraulic diameter of fuel rods bundle. Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics: J.

Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed. Lamarsh, A. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed. Glasstone, Sesonske.

- [] The laminar-to-turbulent transition in viscous fluid flow.
- Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow in a pipe!
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Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Posing the Problem of Fluid Flow. Initial and Boundary Conditions. Dimensionless Parameters in Viscous Fluid Flow. Dimensionless Parameters in Navier-Stokes Equations. Dimensionless Parameters in the Energy Equation. Viscous Flow Pattern. Pure Viscous Flow.

## Laminar flow

Visco-inertial Flow. The Boundary'Layer Concept. Other Forms of the Basic Equations. The Equation for Vorticity.

Two-Dimensional Row. Integral Relations Control Volume Formulation. Plane Parallel Flow. Couette Flow. Channel Poiseuille Flow. Open Channel Flow. Combined Couette-Poiseuille Flow.

### PipeFlow Software

General Couette Flow. Translation of a Semiplane in a Channel. Duct Flow. Circular Pipe. Ducts of Various Cross Sections. Hydraulic Radius.

- [] The laminar-to-turbulent transition in viscous fluid flow.
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- References;
- Laminar Flow?
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Analysis of a System of Ducts. Steady Parallel Flow of Viscoplastic Media. Circular Duct. Influence of Porous Surfaces. Quasi-Parallel Flow. Channel and Duct Flow. Flow upon Concentric Circles. Coaxial Rotating Cylinders. Particular Cases Vortex. Motions upon Concurrent Lines.

Motion between Two Nonparallel Walls. Approximate Solutions. Self-Similar Solutions. Flow Near a Stagnation Point. Flow Near a Rotating Disk. Fluid Rotation Near a Plane. Other Solutions. Solutions for the Stream Function. Pseudo-Plane Motions Noninertial Coordinates. Parallel Unsteady Flow.