PDF Best Practice in Motivation and Management in the Classroom (3rd Edition)

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Invite them to establish obtainable goals for a lesson, a unit, or even for the whole year. Ask them what they would like to learn about a topic and what they think they must do to learn that material. Psychologists tell us that the goals we set for ourselves as opposed to the goals others set for us are intrinsically more motivational. We're more inclined to pursue those goals and relish in the success that comes about when we achieve them. Start the day off on a pleasant note: a funny video, a trivia question, or fun fact will help students see the entertaining side of learning.

Provide numerous opportunities for students to share their accomplishments with the class and the class to share their achievements with the larger school community.


Use skits, plays, readers theater productions, library displays, bulletin boards, a class newspaper or newsletter, or other media to promote the efforts of the whole classroom. Back to School Printable Book K Blank Monthly Calendars. Spend more time teaching and less time searching. Get full, ad-free access to all our learning resources—curated and vetted by teachers and curriculum specialists—for one-low price.

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Cancel anytime. Learn more about Premium. Having trouble getting students motivated? Maybe you just need to shake up your everyday routine! Check out our gallery of Top 10 Motivation Tips for the Classroom, and find ways to get students excited about learning such as strategies to keep students engaged, allow for creativity, change the daily routine, among many more ideas.

Top 10 Games for the Classroom

Back to School Headquarters Editor's Collections Teaching Strategies:. New Teacher Resources Classroom Management Manage My Favorites. Keep Students Active and Engaged. Allow for Creativity and Variety. Create a Class Newspaper. Get Out of the Classroom. Create a Competition.

  • 3 Methods To Motivate the Unmotivated.
  • 20 Classroom Management Strategies and Techniques [+ Downloadable List].
  • Evso guide-3rd-edition;

Offer Differentiated Instruction. Provide Feedback Promptly, Frequently, and Efficiently. Start the Day with Fun. The essential feature of the changing criterion design is that the intervention phase is divided into a number of subphases that have increasingly rigorous criteria for the dependent measure. Treatment is implemented with the goal of moving baseline levels of performance to an initial criterion level; once criterion is reached for a predetermined number of days or sessions, the subsequent phase begins with a more stringent criterion.

Such designs may be particularly suited to negative behaviors that occur at a high rate and need to be gradually reduced Rusch et al. Deitz and Repp used a changing criterion design to successfully decrease inappropriate talking in a high school classroom. Within this design, the criterion was lowered each week, requiring that students meet a more stringent standard to earn the reinforcer.

As can be seen in the figure, the reinforcement program, known as differential reinforcement of low rates DRL Kazdin, , resulted in a systematic decrease in the targeted behavior across these phases, as well as an increase in the negative talking when the program was withdrawn with a return to baseline. Example of a changing criterion design. From Deitz, S. Decreasing classroom misbehavior through the use of DRL schedules of reinforcement.

Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, — The multielement or alternating treatments design is used when researchers wish to evaluate the relative effects of two interventions in a single experimental phase, something that is not possible in other single-case designs.

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Classroom - WeAreTeachers

In the alternating treatments design, the baseline phase is followed by an intervention phase in which the two interventions are applied at different times e. To enhance the analysis of a functional relationship, the treatments are also balanced across the intervention phase so that neither occurs consistently first, nor always under the same conditions.

McQuillan, DuPaul, Shapiro, and Cole used an alternating treatments design to examine the relative effects of two forms of a self-management intervention and a teacher-evaluation intervention on the mathematics performance and time on task of three adolescent students with behavior disorders see Fig. After seven days of baseline, during which the teacher-evaluation management system already in use in the school remained in effect, an alternating treatments phase was implemented in which the teacher-evaluation system and the two forms of self-management were counterbalanced across daily sessions.

Following three weeks of this phase, the optimal condition self-evaluation was implemented in a subsequent phase. Example of an alternating treatments or multielement design. McQuillan, G. DuPaul, E. Shapiro, and C. Cole Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, — We have touched briefly on the extensive literature base underlying a behavioral approach to classroom management and have also noted that a research-to-practice gap plagues classroom management just as it does all of education.

Some writers have suggested that as a field we really do not know all that we purport to know about how to teach and manage behavior e.

Three issues seem to be at the heart of concerns about the behavioral view of classroom management: a generalization, b concerns about coercion and bribery, and c ethical concerns about the potential for misuse of behavioral operations. The failure of researchers to produce treatment effects that routinely generalize to other settings, times, and responses has been a sharp and essentially legitimate criticism of behavioral programming since its early application to classroom settings.

Even when teachers experience great success in fostering positive change in important academic and social behavior in one context or setting, there is no guarantee that effects will generalize across time maintenance , or to other settings or responses. In what is probably the classic treatment of the problems associated with generalization, Stokes and Baer reviewed scores of studies and described nine generalization promotion strategies that researchers reported using.

These included such strategies as program common stimuli , in which elements of the new environment tasks, materials, trainers, directions, etc. Unfortunately, train and hope , essentially a failure to program for generalization, was noted as a common strategy in the literature reviewed. In essence, the criticism that behavioral operations do not produce generalizable effects was shown to be true by default; if educators do not actively program for generalization in their interventions, as often appears to be the case, then generalization will be lacking.

But as a number of authors have since summarized, active programming for generalization using among other strategies those noted by Stokes and Baer can result in generalized responding e. Ducharme and Holborn , for example, used prompting, modeling, and verbal praise with preschoolers with hearing impairments to teach social interaction skills such as sharing, cooperating, or assisting other children.

While the skills were learned and displayed successfully by the children in their preschool training setting, these newly learned skills did not generalize to other teachers, children, or play settings. Ducharme and Holborn used two generalization promotion strategies to engender such transfer. First, they trained sufficient exemplars by using multiple and different play activities games , different teachers, and several different peers during their training of the targeted social skills.

Second, they introduced children to natural contingencies , by systematically fading the teacher praise used initially to teach the new behaviors. These strategies resulted in generalized responding in a different setting with new peers, teachers, and play activities even with no additional prompting or reinforcement, such as that used in the initial training.

The larger remaining challenge for behavioral researchers lies in making sure that behavioral interventions routinely include explicit programming for generalization. Rusch et al. As should be obvious, though, failure to generalize calls into question the true worth of any contextually limited behavior change. Among the more frequent criticisms of the behavioral view of classroom management are concerns that teachers become too controlling, and merely coerce or bribe students to behave in ways that the teacher chooses.

That said, even behavioral procedures as innocuous as contingent teacher attention are subject to misuse, but this is not different from the teacher who does not use proper and scientifically sound literacy research to guide instruction for emergent readers.

Understanding Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in the Classroom

The problem lies not in the procedures themselves, but in inadequately trained, mentored, and supported teachers. The procedures we have outlined here provide teachers with powerful tools that can have a profound impact on the behavior of others. It should go without saying that we assume that ethical and professional educators understand appropriate applications of behavioral procedures, and can apply them earnestly in ways that enhance the academic, social, and emotional well-being of students.

But we also know that any procedure carries potential risk that it will be misapplied, or applied toward an inappropriate end. Moreover, the more powerful any tool is, the more potential it has for misuse and abuse. We believe that we do want powerful tools for changing behavior, as the alternative is for our interventions to have little effect.